Heat Treatment Equipments
Heat Treatment process is commonly referred to as stress relief, so called because it is carried out at temperatures at which yield strength has fallen to a low value. If the structure is heated uniformly, the yield strength of the material around the weld is unable to support the initial deformation.
Creep occurs at the elevated temperatures and strain will occur by a diffusion mechanism, relaxing the residual stresses even further. The extent to which residual stresses are relaxed will depend on temperature for any given material and on material for any given temperature. The stress distributions at the higher temperatures become more uniform and their magnitude reduces to a low level.
On cooling, provided it is carried out in a controlled manner, the improved stress distribution is retained. In addition to a reduction and redistribution of residual stresses, post weld treatments at higher permits some tempering or aging effects to take place.
These metallurgical changes are very beneficial in that they reduce the high hardness of the as-welded structures, improving ductility and reducing the risks of brittle fracture. Post weld heat treatment has mandatory significance governed by the national standards and codes, as well as being required to offer acceptable component life in onerous environments. As with preheat, the alloying content of the steel is related to the significance of heat treatment temperature.
PWHT TECH Heat Treatment Modules include our unique â€˜Advantage has been constructed to provide power to electrical resistance heaters. Suitable for onsite and shop working.
Ceramic Pad And Rope Heaters
Almost any conductive wire can be used for heating, but most metals conduct electricity with great efficiency, requiring them to be formed into very thin and delicate wires in order to create enough resistance to generate heat. When heated in air, most metals then oxidize quickly, become brittle, and break. NiChrome wire, however, when heated to red-hot temperatures, develops an outer layer of chromium oxide, which is thermodynamically stable in air, is mostly impervious to oxygen, and protects the heating element from further oxidation.
NiChrome is used in the explosives and fireworks industry as a bridge wire in electric ignition systems, such as electric matches and model rocket igniters. Industrial and hobby hot-wire foam cutters use NiChrome wire.
NiChrome wire is commonly used in ceramic as an internal support structure to help some elements of clay sculptures hold their shape while they are still soft. NiChrome wire is used for its ability to withstand the high temperatures that occur when clay work is fired in a kiln.
NiChrome alloys are known for their high mechanical strength and their high creep strength. The properties of NiChrome vary depending on its alloy. The alloy price is controlled by the more expensive nickel content.
Heat Treatment Cables And Wires
Electric power can be transmitted or distributed either by overhead transmission systems or by underground cables.
Cables are mainly designed as per requirement. Power cables are mainly used for power transmission and distribution purposes. It is an assembly of one or more individually insulated electrical conductors, usually held together with an overall sheath. The assembly is used for transmission and distribution of electrical power. Flexible power cables are used for portable devices, mobile tools, and machinery.
These are designed and manufactured as per voltage, current to be carried, operating maximum temperature and purpose of applications desired by the customer.
Temperature Sensors measure the amount of heat energy or even coldness that is generated by an object or system, allowing us to â€œsenseâ€ or detect any physical change to that temperature producing either an analogue or digital output.
There are many different types of Temperature Sensor available and all have different characteristics depending upon their actual application. A temperature sensor consists of two basic physical types:
Contact Temperature Sensor Types and Non-contact Temperature Sensor Types.
The two basic types of contact or even non-contact temperature sensors can also be sub-divided into the following three groups of sensors, Electro-mechanical, Resistive and Electronic and all three types.
Heat treatment requirements of wire rope and cable are highly application dependent.
The selection of wire rope and cable depends on a number of parameters including size, grade of material, whether or not it is preformed, hardness, the number of strands or wires in each strand and how the strands lay. Most rope and cable are made from steel or stainless steel wound wires. Continuous wire strands are wound around a central core, which can be steel, rope or even plastic.
Plugs, Sockets And Connectors
A Camlock fitting, also called a cam and groove coupling, is used to connect two hoses and or pipes together in a variety of industries, so that a commodity from one can be transferred to the other.
Thermocouple connectors are an accurate and convenient way of interconnecting your temperature sensing components. Using these connectors allows a chain to be formed from the measuring tip of your temperature sensor to the host computer or meter. The connector is opened up and the thermocouple wires are simply screwed down into place using two captive screw clamps. The miniature thermocouple plug connector can then be plugged into a mating miniature thermocouple socket connector.
CAMLOCK couplings make a group of very popular, recognized and reliable couplings for application in industry, in particular in the oil and gas as well as chemical industry. The specifications for the couplings were first laid down in US military standard MIL-C-27487 ( A-A-59326), they are also defined by the European standards EN 14420-7 (former DIN 2828). With their simple design, CAMLOCK couplings are very user friendly. To connect, an adapter is simply inserted into a coupler with the cam arms extended. To lock the adapter in the coupler both cam arms must be pulled down at the same time. The cam arms engage in the groove of the adapter and thus block and press it tightly. A flat elastometric seal in the groove of the coupler ensures leak tightness. A safety pin in the holes of the coupler can provide additional protection against accidental opening of the cam arms and against disconnection.
You typically find Camlocks in use in every industry, such as manufacturing, agriculture, oil, gas, chemical, pharmaceutical and within military applications. Theyâ€™re an extremely versatile product, and because there are no threads when connecting the coupling halves together, there are no issues with them becoming damaged or dirty. This means Camlock couplings are very suitable for dirty environments. The system is especially well suited to a situation where frequent changes of hoses are required, such as for petroleum, and industrial chemical trucks.
Temperature Measuring Equipment
Temperature is defined as the energy level of matter which can be evidenced by some change in that matter.
Temperature measuring sensors come in a wide variety and have one thing in common. They all measure temperature by sensing some change in a physical characteristic.
The seven basic types of temperature measurement sensors discussed here are thermocouples, RTDs, infrared radiators, bimetallic devices, liquid expansion devices, molecular change-of-state and silicon diodes.
When two different materials are welded together to make a junction and heated up, an electromotive force is generated make the measurement of temperature possible.
The thermocouples measure temperature differences.
Measured temperature by a thermocouple shall be recorded by a Temperature recorder. There are Strip chart recorder, circular chart recorder and nowadays digital recorders are also available.
Ceramic Fiber Blanket is composed of long flexible, interwoven fibers manufactured by the â€œspunâ€ process yielding a strong, lightweight, durable product. This material can be used for applications with temperatures from 1000Â°F (538Â°C) to 2600Â°F (1425Â°C). These Blankets have high tensile strength for longer life and durability. Ceramic Fiber Blankets contain no binders and are completely inorganic.
Heat Treatment Accessories and Spares
PWHTTECH offers Heat Treatment Equipment and Accessories. Please browse our products to find the best one for you. If you have any questions about PWHT and our FLEXIBLE CERAMIC PAD HEATERS, please contact us at +91-9043-660-755 or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org and to know more details about block and specimens log on to www.pwhtpwhttech.com Our knowledgeable customer service staff is happy to assist you.